From the moment they are born, babies soak in all the information they can about their surroundings. They take in the world around them and learn to react, manipulate, and interact to achieve their goals.
Jean Piaget first theorised how intelligence begins in infancy by showing how babies start to make sense of the world around them and develop ways to adapt to their environment. Through careful observation, he identified several sensorimotor stages and divided an infant’s first year of life into 3 stages.
In the first 4 months, babies start to learn how to smile from seeing people around them with the same facial expression. Not only that, they also learn to express their joy through smiling. They begin to evoke smiles from people by smiling pointedly.
As they discover joy, they also soon discover discomfort. However, one good thing is they learn coping skills like repeatedly doing self-soothing behaviours like sucking their thumbs.
Along with newly discovered expressions, babies start to become more coordinated, practising their limbs through stretching and kicking. This helps them build their muscles while also learning how their limbs work.